Effectiveness investigation of travel demand management measures in Beijing: Existing measures and a potential measure–tradable driving credit

Yue Bao, Meng Xu*, Nico Dogterom, Dick Ettema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Facing serious challenges of traffic congestion and air pollution, Beijing has implemented a series of traffic polices. In this paper, we first investigate the effectiveness of existing traffic measures in Beijing and analyse the underlying factors from the perspective of drivers, which provide insights for the traffic regulations in other cities worldwide. While the car ownership restriction has effectively limited the total number of vehicle in Beijing, the effect of the car use restriction only lasts for a short period. A survey on drivers’ opinions and attitudes towards the traffic situation and a potential measure, i.e., tradable driving credit (TDC), is conducted. Although traffic data shows that congestion improved and traffic was slightly congested in recent years in Beijing, most respondents believe congestion is still serious in Beijing. However, they think the impact of traffic congestion on their personal car use is relatively low, which could partly explain why so many travellers still depend on driving given the relative convenient transit facilities in Beijing. In addition, a large proportion of respondents treat personal cars as a representation of social status and think driving bring them pleasures, which indicates that it may be hard to further decrease the share of car trips in Beijing. According to their attitudes and social-economical characters, respondents’ willingness on their changes of travel behaviours under TDC is investigated. The results show that individuals’ social-economic characters such as income level, education and family size and the symbolic meaning of personal cars have significant influence on respondents’ willingness to switch to other transport modes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-61
Number of pages15
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Early online date5 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • Beijing
  • Mobility management
  • Tradable driving credit
  • Travel demand management
  • Travel survey


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