Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children’s comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model updating, evaluative and selfregulatory strategies, and metacognitive awareness. A group (n 1/4 51) following the school’s regular reading comprehension curriculum served as the control group. The inconsistency-detection training was expected to show a pretest-toposttest enhancement in comprehension monitoring strategies (measured with the inconsistency-detection paradigm), general reading comprehension, and reading motivation. Results showed that, compared with the control group, fourth graders’ inconsistency-detection performance significantly improved after the inconsistency- detection training. Third graders did not show a significant gain. General reading comprehension and reading motivation scores were promising for children receiving the inconsistency-detection training. In summary, our inconsistencydetection training was an effective means to enhance children’s use of monitoringstrategies required for constructing and updating a coherent situation model and to transfer these strategies to novel texts.