This study investigated how the physiological states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Streptococcus mitis affect their intracellular invasion capabilities and the resulting host cell responses. The physiological states included two forms of planktonic states, floating or sedimented (by centrifugation) and the biofilm state (with centrifugation). Confluent epithelial Ca9-22 cells were challenged with floating or sedimented planktonic cultures, or with 24-h biofilms for 3 h. The results show that intracellular invasion efficiencies were clearly affected by the bacterial physiological states. For both bacterial species, the sedimented-cells displayed 2–10 times higher invasion efficiency than the floating-cells (p < 0.05). The invasion efficiency of Aa biofilms was three fold lower than sedimented cells, whereas those of S. mitis biofilms were similar to sedimented cells. Unlike invasion, the metabolic activities of Ca9-22 were unaffected by different bacterial physiological states. However, Aa biofilms induced higher IL-1β expression than planktonic cultures. In conclusion, different bacterial physiological states can affect the outcomes of (in vitro) host–microbe interaction in different ways.