Effects of high loading by eccentric triceps surae training on Achilles tendon properties in humans

Jeam Marcel Geremia, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Maarten Frank Bobbert, Rodrigo Rico Bini, Fabio Juner Lanferdini, Marco Aurélio Vaz

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To document the magnitude and time course of human Achilles tendon adaptations (i.e. changes in tendon morphological and mechanical properties) during a 12-week high-load plantar flexion training program. Methods: Ultrasound was used to determine Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), length and elongation as a function of plantar flexion torque during voluntary plantar flexion. Tendon force–elongation and stress–strain relationships were determined before the start of training (pre-training) and after 4 (post-4), 8 (post-8) and 12 (post-12) training weeks. Results: At the end of the training program, maximum isometric force had increased by 49% and tendon CSA by 17%, but tendon length, maximal tendon elongation and maximal strain were unchanged. Hence, tendon stiffness had increased by 82%, and so had Young’s modulus, by 86%. Significant changes were first detected at post-4 in stiffness (51% increase) and Young’s modulus (87% increase), and at post-8 in CSA (15% increase). Conclusions: Achilles tendon material properties already improved after 4 weeks of high-load training: stiffness increased while CSA remained unchanged. Tendon hypertrophy (increased CSA) was observed after 8 training weeks and contributed to a further increase in Achilles tendon stiffness, but tendon stiffness increases were mostly caused by adaptations in tissue properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1725-1736
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume118
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

Fingerprint

Achilles Tendon
Tendons
Elastic Modulus
Education
Torque
Hypertrophy

Keywords

  • Eccentric training
  • Human tendon stiffness
  • Myotendinous junction
  • Ultrasound

Cite this

Geremia, Jeam Marcel ; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini ; Bobbert, Maarten Frank ; Bini, Rodrigo Rico ; Lanferdini, Fabio Juner ; Vaz, Marco Aurélio. / Effects of high loading by eccentric triceps surae training on Achilles tendon properties in humans. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2018 ; Vol. 118, No. 8. pp. 1725-1736.
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abstract = "Purpose: To document the magnitude and time course of human Achilles tendon adaptations (i.e. changes in tendon morphological and mechanical properties) during a 12-week high-load plantar flexion training program. Methods: Ultrasound was used to determine Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), length and elongation as a function of plantar flexion torque during voluntary plantar flexion. Tendon force–elongation and stress–strain relationships were determined before the start of training (pre-training) and after 4 (post-4), 8 (post-8) and 12 (post-12) training weeks. Results: At the end of the training program, maximum isometric force had increased by 49{\%} and tendon CSA by 17{\%}, but tendon length, maximal tendon elongation and maximal strain were unchanged. Hence, tendon stiffness had increased by 82{\%}, and so had Young’s modulus, by 86{\%}. Significant changes were first detected at post-4 in stiffness (51{\%} increase) and Young’s modulus (87{\%} increase), and at post-8 in CSA (15{\%} increase). Conclusions: Achilles tendon material properties already improved after 4 weeks of high-load training: stiffness increased while CSA remained unchanged. Tendon hypertrophy (increased CSA) was observed after 8 training weeks and contributed to a further increase in Achilles tendon stiffness, but tendon stiffness increases were mostly caused by adaptations in tissue properties.",
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Effects of high loading by eccentric triceps surae training on Achilles tendon properties in humans. / Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Bobbert, Maarten Frank; Bini, Rodrigo Rico; Lanferdini, Fabio Juner; Vaz, Marco Aurélio.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 118, No. 8, 01.08.2018, p. 1725-1736.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Geremia, Jeam Marcel

AU - Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

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AU - Lanferdini, Fabio Juner

AU - Vaz, Marco Aurélio

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AB - Purpose: To document the magnitude and time course of human Achilles tendon adaptations (i.e. changes in tendon morphological and mechanical properties) during a 12-week high-load plantar flexion training program. Methods: Ultrasound was used to determine Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), length and elongation as a function of plantar flexion torque during voluntary plantar flexion. Tendon force–elongation and stress–strain relationships were determined before the start of training (pre-training) and after 4 (post-4), 8 (post-8) and 12 (post-12) training weeks. Results: At the end of the training program, maximum isometric force had increased by 49% and tendon CSA by 17%, but tendon length, maximal tendon elongation and maximal strain were unchanged. Hence, tendon stiffness had increased by 82%, and so had Young’s modulus, by 86%. Significant changes were first detected at post-4 in stiffness (51% increase) and Young’s modulus (87% increase), and at post-8 in CSA (15% increase). Conclusions: Achilles tendon material properties already improved after 4 weeks of high-load training: stiffness increased while CSA remained unchanged. Tendon hypertrophy (increased CSA) was observed after 8 training weeks and contributed to a further increase in Achilles tendon stiffness, but tendon stiffness increases were mostly caused by adaptations in tissue properties.

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KW - Myotendinous junction

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