Effects of music in advertising: Three experiments replicating single-exposure musical conditioning of consumer choice (Gorn, 1982) in an individual setting.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticle


Can single pairing of background music with an advertised product condition choice behavior? Gorn's (1982) demonstration of this effect remains controversial given his unconventional conditioning procedure, unusual data analyses, probably confounded stimuli, and possible demand artifacts. We review prior criticism and conduct three conceptual replications (N = 182, 224, 127) circumventing these problems. Study 1 finds (weak) significant musical conditioning effects for low-involvement products. Study 2 fails to find effects for higher-involvement products. Study 3 showed conditioning of general brand and product evaluations but not of specific brand-related evaluations. Demand artifacts play a minor role; contingency awareness (marginally) amplifies conditioning effects across studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-61
JournalJournal of Advertising
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


Cite this