Effects of smoking on the ex vivo cytokine production in periodontitis

G.L. Torres de Heens, R. Kikkert, L.A. Aarden, U. van der Velden, B.G. Loos

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    Background and Objective:  Smoking is associated with increased severity of periodontitis. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare the monocyte-derived T cell directing (Th1/Th2) response and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in ex vivo whole blood cell cultures (WBCC) of smoking and non-smoking chronic periodontitis patients.
    Material and Methods:  Venous blood was collected from 29 periodontitis patients (18 non-smokers and 11 smokers) receiving supportive periodontal treatment, and diluted 10-fold for WBCC. The WBCC were stimulated for 18 h with Neisseria meningitidis lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) orPorphyromonas gingivalis sonic extract (Pg-SE). The production of the T cell directing cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, was measured in the culture supernatants.
    Results:  After LOS stimulation of WBCC, smokers showed a lower IL-12 p40/IL-10 ratio than non-smokers (P < 0.05). Interleukin-1β production was significantly lower in smokers compared with non-smokers after stimulation with either LOS or Pg-SE (P < 0.05). Interleukin-6 and IL-8 production was similar in WBCC from both smokers and non-smokers, for both LOS and Pg-SE.
    Conclusion:  A more pronounced Th2 response in smoking periodontitis patients may be related to increased severity of the disease.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)28-34
    JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

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