Streptococcus salivarius MS-oral-D6 promotes gingival re-epithelialization in vitro through a secreted serine protease

M.M. Fernandez-Gutierrez, P.P.J. Roosjen, E. Ultee, M. Agelink, J.J.M. Vervoort, B. Keijser, J.M. Wells, M. Kleerebezem

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Gingival re-epithelialization represents an essential phase of oral wound healing in which epithelial integrity is re-establish. We developed an automated high-throughput re-epithelialization kinetic model, using the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9–22. The model was employed to screen 39 lactic acid bacteria, predominantly including oral isolates, for their capacity to accelerate gingival re-epithelialization. This screen identified several strains of Streptococcus salivarius that stimulated re-epithelialization. Further analysis revealed that S. salivarius strain MS-oral-D6 significantly promoted re-epithelialization through a secreted proteinaceous compound and subsequent experiments identified a secreted serine protease as the most likely candidate to be involved in re-epithelialization stimulation. The identification of bacteria or their products that stimulate gingival wound repair may inspire novel strategies for the maintenance of oral health.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11100
Number of pages15
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2017

Bibliographical note

With supplementary information


We thank Koos Oosterhaven and Zeger Kruiswijk (NIZO food research, Ede, NL) for providing us with a collection of lactic acid bacteria derived from the oral cavity. We also want to acknowledge Dr. Alexa M. G. A. Laheij (Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam, NL) for sharing her experience in re-epithelialization assays and providing P. gingivalis W83, as well as Dr. Tom van den Bogert (Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL) for providing us with the Streptococcus strains. Finally, we are grateful for the advice and expertise provided by Sjef Boeren and Berdien van Olst (Biochemistry group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL) regarding the execution and interpretation of proteomics data. Finally, we thank Lisa Robbers for her help executing cytokine measurements. This study was funded by the Top Institute Food and Nutrition (TIFN, Program OH001, Wageningen, The Netherlands).

FundersFunder number
Top Institute Food and NutritionOH001


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