Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

Eleni Papadopoulou, Somrutai Poothong, Jacco Koekkoek, Luisa Lucattini, Juan Antonio Padilla-Sánchez, Margaretha Haugen, Dorte Herzke, Stig Valdersnes, Amund Maage, Ian T. Cousins, Pim E.G. Leonards, Line Småstuen Haug

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. Methods We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. Results The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6 ng/day, 11 ng/day and 0.78 ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14 pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72 pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho=0.26, p-value=0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho=0.34, p=0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho=0.25, p-value=0.055). Conclusions We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-276
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

assessment method
Diet Records
Food
Acids
food
Diet
acid
Nutrition
diet
Food Contamination
Eating
liquid
comparison
exposure
Liquids
Hazardous Substances
Alcoholic Beverages
Contamination
Norway
Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Food
  • Human exposure
  • PFOA
  • PFOS

Cite this

Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Poothong, Somrutai ; Koekkoek, Jacco ; Lucattini, Luisa ; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio ; Haugen, Margaretha ; Herzke, Dorte ; Valdersnes, Stig ; Maage, Amund ; Cousins, Ian T. ; Leonards, Pim E.G. ; Småstuen Haug, Line. / Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks : Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods. In: Environmental Research. 2017 ; Vol. 158. pp. 269-276.
@article{1974b69a6089400688b768593f2bab87,
title = "Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods",
abstract = "Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. Methods We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74{\%} women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. Results The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6 ng/day, 11 ng/day and 0.78 ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14 pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72 pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho=0.26, p-value=0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho=0.34, p=0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho=0.25, p-value=0.055). Conclusions We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.",
keywords = "Diet, Food, Human exposure, PFOA, PFOS",
author = "Eleni Papadopoulou and Somrutai Poothong and Jacco Koekkoek and Luisa Lucattini and Padilla-S{\'a}nchez, {Juan Antonio} and Margaretha Haugen and Dorte Herzke and Stig Valdersnes and Amund Maage and Cousins, {Ian T.} and Leonards, {Pim E.G.} and {Sm{\aa}stuen Haug}, Line",
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language = "English",
volume = "158",
pages = "269--276",
journal = "Environmental Research",
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Papadopoulou, E, Poothong, S, Koekkoek, J, Lucattini, L, Padilla-Sánchez, JA, Haugen, M, Herzke, D, Valdersnes, S, Maage, A, Cousins, IT, Leonards, PEG & Småstuen Haug, L 2017, 'Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods' Environmental Research, vol. 158, pp. 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.011

Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks : Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods. / Papadopoulou, Eleni; Poothong, Somrutai; Koekkoek, Jacco; Lucattini, Luisa; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haugen, Margaretha; Herzke, Dorte; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Cousins, Ian T.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Småstuen Haug, Line.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 158, 2017, p. 269-276.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks

T2 - Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

AU - Papadopoulou, Eleni

AU - Poothong, Somrutai

AU - Koekkoek, Jacco

AU - Lucattini, Luisa

AU - Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio

AU - Haugen, Margaretha

AU - Herzke, Dorte

AU - Valdersnes, Stig

AU - Maage, Amund

AU - Cousins, Ian T.

AU - Leonards, Pim E.G.

AU - Småstuen Haug, Line

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. Methods We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. Results The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6 ng/day, 11 ng/day and 0.78 ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14 pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72 pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho=0.26, p-value=0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho=0.34, p=0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho=0.25, p-value=0.055). Conclusions We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.

AB - Background Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. Methods We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n=122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. Results The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6 ng/day, 11 ng/day and 0.78 ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14 pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72 pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho=0.26, p-value=0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho=0.34, p=0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho=0.25, p-value=0.055). Conclusions We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.

KW - Diet

KW - Food

KW - Human exposure

KW - PFOA

KW - PFOS

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