This study incorporated specific endpoints for estrogenic activity in the early life-stage (ELS) test, as described in Guideline 210 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and traditionally used for toxicity screening of chemicals. A transgenic zebrafish model expressing an estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene was exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE2), and luciferase activity as well as vitellogenin (VTG) was measured. Concentrations of EE2 were tested at 1, 3, or 10 ng/L for 30 d from fertilization or during only the last 4 d with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as presolvent (0.01%). Exposure to EE2 induced no toxic effects. Mean body weights were significantly higher in groups exposed for 30 d in the presence of DMSO, but condition factors were not affected. Significant luciferase and VTG induction occurred following 30-d exposure (3 and 10 ng EE2/L), while only VTG levels were affected in the 4-d exposure (10 ng EE2/L). This study demonstrated the usefulness of incorporating estrogenic endpoints in the OECD ELS test, fitting the requirements for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals. Quantitative measurement of both VTG and luciferase activity proved to be rapid and sensitive. Additional value of using transgenic zebrafish lies in combining VTG measurement with the more mechanistic approach of luciferase induction in one experiment. © 2006 SETAC.