Ethnic drift and white flight: A gravity model of neighborhood formation

Jessie Bakens*, Raymond J.G.M. Florax, Peter Mulder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Most research on ethnic relocation at the neighborhood level focuses on either in-migration or out-migration, considering characteristics of either the origin or the destination neighborhood. Gravity models consider characteristics of both the origin and destination of movers, but are mostly used to explain international or interregional migrant flows. We estimate a gravity model at the neighborhood level to identify the role of ethnic heterogeneity across space in two Dutch cities, explaining both size and ethnic composition of mover flows within cities. Our findings suggest a preference for living with the own ethnic group in an otherwise diverse neighborhood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)921-948
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Regional Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018


  • diversity
  • ethnicity
  • gravity model
  • immigrants
  • neighborhood formation


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