Based on the operatorial formulation of the perturbation theory, the properties of an exciton coupled with optical phonons on a star graph are investigated. Within this method, the dynamics is governed by an effective Hamiltonian, which accounts for exciton-phonon entanglement. The exciton is dressed by a virtual phonon cloud whereas the phonons are clothed by virtual excitonic transitions. In spite of the coupling with the phonons, it is shown that the energy spectrum of the dressed exciton resembles that of a bare exciton. The only differences originate in a polaronic mechanism that favors an energy shift and a decay of the exciton hopping constant. By contrast, the motion of the exciton allows the phonons to propagate over the graph so that the dressed normal modes drastically differ from the localized modes associated to bare phonons. They define extended vibrations whose properties depend on the state occupied by the exciton that accompanies the phonons. It is shown that the phonon frequencies, either red shifted or blue shifted, are very sensitive to the model parameter in general, and to the size of the graph in particular.