Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater: P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364

G. L. Christeson, S. P.S. Gulick, J. V. Morgan, C. Gebhardt, D. A. Kring, E. Le Ber, J. Lofi, C. Nixon, M. Poelchau, A. S.P. Rae, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra, U. Riller, D. R. Schmitt, A. Wittmann, T. J. Bralower, E. Chenot, P. Claeys, C. S. Cockell, M. J.L. Coolen, L. Ferrière & 17 others S. Green, K. Goto, H. Jones, C. M. Lowery, C. Mellett, R. Ocampo-Torres, L. Perez-Cruz, A. E. Pickersgill, C. Rasmussen, H. Sato, J. Smit, S. M. Tikoo, N. Tomioka, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, M. T. Whalen, L. Xiao, K. E. Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Joint International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program Expedition 364 drilled into the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater. We present P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from Hole M0077A that reveal unusual physical properties of the peak-ring rocks. Across the boundary between post-impact sedimentary rock and suevite (impact melt-bearing breccia) we measure a sharp decrease in velocity and density, and an increase in porosity. Velocity, density, and porosity values for the suevite are 2900–3700 m/s, 2.06–2.37 g/cm3, and 20–35%, respectively. The thin (25 m) impact melt rock unit below the suevite has velocity measurements of 3650–4350 m/s, density measurements of 2.26–2.37 g/cm3, and porosity measurements of 19–22%. We associate the low velocity, low density, and high porosity of suevite and impact melt rock with rapid emplacement, hydrothermal alteration products, and observations of pore space, vugs, and vesicles. The uplifted granitic peak ring materials have values of 4000–4200 m/s, 2.39–2.44 g/cm3, and 8–13% for velocity, density, and porosity, respectively; these values differ significantly from typical unaltered granite which has higher velocity and density, and lower porosity. The majority of Hole M0077A peak-ring velocity, density, and porosity measurements indicate considerable rock damage, and are consistent with numerical model predictions for peak-ring formation where the lithologies present within the peak ring represent some of the most shocked and damaged rocks in an impact basin. We integrate our results with previous seismic datasets to map the suevite near the borehole. We map suevite below the Paleogene sedimentary rock in the annular trough, on the peak ring, and in the central basin, implying that, post impact, suevite covered the entire floor of the impact basin. Suevite thickness is 100–165 m on the top of the peak ring but 200 m in the central basin, suggesting that suevite flowed downslope from the collapsing central uplift during and after peak-ring formation, accumulating preferentially within the central basin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume495
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

Fingerprint

suevite
expeditions
velocity measurement
P waves
craters
Density (specific gravity)
crater
P-wave
wave velocity
Porosity
porosity
Rocks
rocks
rings
rock
impact melts
Sedimentary rocks
basin
sedimentary rocks
melt

Keywords

  • Chicxulub
  • impact crater
  • peak ring
  • physical properties

Cite this

Christeson, G. L. ; Gulick, S. P.S. ; Morgan, J. V. ; Gebhardt, C. ; Kring, D. A. ; Le Ber, E. ; Lofi, J. ; Nixon, C. ; Poelchau, M. ; Rae, A. S.P. ; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M. ; Riller, U. ; Schmitt, D. R. ; Wittmann, A. ; Bralower, T. J. ; Chenot, E. ; Claeys, P. ; Cockell, C. S. ; Coolen, M. J.L. ; Ferrière, L. ; Green, S. ; Goto, K. ; Jones, H. ; Lowery, C. M. ; Mellett, C. ; Ocampo-Torres, R. ; Perez-Cruz, L. ; Pickersgill, A. E. ; Rasmussen, C. ; Sato, H. ; Smit, J. ; Tikoo, S. M. ; Tomioka, N. ; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. ; Whalen, M. T. ; Xiao, L. ; Yamaguchi, K. E. / Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater : P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364. In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2018 ; Vol. 495. pp. 1-11.
@article{c36a53c695fe4ca1a7e41de1721085cb,
title = "Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater: P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364",
abstract = "Joint International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program Expedition 364 drilled into the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater. We present P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from Hole M0077A that reveal unusual physical properties of the peak-ring rocks. Across the boundary between post-impact sedimentary rock and suevite (impact melt-bearing breccia) we measure a sharp decrease in velocity and density, and an increase in porosity. Velocity, density, and porosity values for the suevite are 2900–3700 m/s, 2.06–2.37 g/cm3, and 20–35{\%}, respectively. The thin (25 m) impact melt rock unit below the suevite has velocity measurements of 3650–4350 m/s, density measurements of 2.26–2.37 g/cm3, and porosity measurements of 19–22{\%}. We associate the low velocity, low density, and high porosity of suevite and impact melt rock with rapid emplacement, hydrothermal alteration products, and observations of pore space, vugs, and vesicles. The uplifted granitic peak ring materials have values of 4000–4200 m/s, 2.39–2.44 g/cm3, and 8–13{\%} for velocity, density, and porosity, respectively; these values differ significantly from typical unaltered granite which has higher velocity and density, and lower porosity. The majority of Hole M0077A peak-ring velocity, density, and porosity measurements indicate considerable rock damage, and are consistent with numerical model predictions for peak-ring formation where the lithologies present within the peak ring represent some of the most shocked and damaged rocks in an impact basin. We integrate our results with previous seismic datasets to map the suevite near the borehole. We map suevite below the Paleogene sedimentary rock in the annular trough, on the peak ring, and in the central basin, implying that, post impact, suevite covered the entire floor of the impact basin. Suevite thickness is 100–165 m on the top of the peak ring but 200 m in the central basin, suggesting that suevite flowed downslope from the collapsing central uplift during and after peak-ring formation, accumulating preferentially within the central basin.",
keywords = "Chicxulub, impact crater, peak ring, physical properties",
author = "Christeson, {G. L.} and Gulick, {S. P.S.} and Morgan, {J. V.} and C. Gebhardt and Kring, {D. A.} and {Le Ber}, E. and J. Lofi and C. Nixon and M. Poelchau and Rae, {A. S.P.} and M. Rebolledo-Vieyra and U. Riller and Schmitt, {D. R.} and A. Wittmann and Bralower, {T. J.} and E. Chenot and P. Claeys and Cockell, {C. S.} and Coolen, {M. J.L.} and L. Ferri{\`e}re and S. Green and K. Goto and H. Jones and Lowery, {C. M.} and C. Mellett and R. Ocampo-Torres and L. Perez-Cruz and Pickersgill, {A. E.} and C. Rasmussen and H. Sato and J. Smit and Tikoo, {S. M.} and N. Tomioka and J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi and Whalen, {M. T.} and L. Xiao and Yamaguchi, {K. E.}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsl.2018.05.013",
language = "English",
volume = "495",
pages = "1--11",
journal = "Earth and Planetary Science Letters",
issn = "0012-821X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Christeson, GL, Gulick, SPS, Morgan, JV, Gebhardt, C, Kring, DA, Le Ber, E, Lofi, J, Nixon, C, Poelchau, M, Rae, ASP, Rebolledo-Vieyra, M, Riller, U, Schmitt, DR, Wittmann, A, Bralower, TJ, Chenot, E, Claeys, P, Cockell, CS, Coolen, MJL, Ferrière, L, Green, S, Goto, K, Jones, H, Lowery, CM, Mellett, C, Ocampo-Torres, R, Perez-Cruz, L, Pickersgill, AE, Rasmussen, C, Sato, H, Smit, J, Tikoo, SM, Tomioka, N, Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J, Whalen, MT, Xiao, L & Yamaguchi, KE 2018, 'Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater: P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364' Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 495, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.05.013

Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater : P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364. / Christeson, G. L.; Gulick, S. P.S.; Morgan, J. V.; Gebhardt, C.; Kring, D. A.; Le Ber, E.; Lofi, J.; Nixon, C.; Poelchau, M.; Rae, A. S.P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Riller, U.; Schmitt, D. R.; Wittmann, A.; Bralower, T. J.; Chenot, E.; Claeys, P.; Cockell, C. S.; Coolen, M. J.L.; Ferrière, L.; Green, S.; Goto, K.; Jones, H.; Lowery, C. M.; Mellett, C.; Ocampo-Torres, R.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Rasmussen, C.; Sato, H.; Smit, J.; Tikoo, S. M.; Tomioka, N.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Whalen, M. T.; Xiao, L.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 495, 01.08.2018, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extraordinary rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater

T2 - P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364

AU - Christeson, G. L.

AU - Gulick, S. P.S.

AU - Morgan, J. V.

AU - Gebhardt, C.

AU - Kring, D. A.

AU - Le Ber, E.

AU - Lofi, J.

AU - Nixon, C.

AU - Poelchau, M.

AU - Rae, A. S.P.

AU - Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

AU - Riller, U.

AU - Schmitt, D. R.

AU - Wittmann, A.

AU - Bralower, T. J.

AU - Chenot, E.

AU - Claeys, P.

AU - Cockell, C. S.

AU - Coolen, M. J.L.

AU - Ferrière, L.

AU - Green, S.

AU - Goto, K.

AU - Jones, H.

AU - Lowery, C. M.

AU - Mellett, C.

AU - Ocampo-Torres, R.

AU - Perez-Cruz, L.

AU - Pickersgill, A. E.

AU - Rasmussen, C.

AU - Sato, H.

AU - Smit, J.

AU - Tikoo, S. M.

AU - Tomioka, N.

AU - Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

AU - Whalen, M. T.

AU - Xiao, L.

AU - Yamaguchi, K. E.

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - Joint International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program Expedition 364 drilled into the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater. We present P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from Hole M0077A that reveal unusual physical properties of the peak-ring rocks. Across the boundary between post-impact sedimentary rock and suevite (impact melt-bearing breccia) we measure a sharp decrease in velocity and density, and an increase in porosity. Velocity, density, and porosity values for the suevite are 2900–3700 m/s, 2.06–2.37 g/cm3, and 20–35%, respectively. The thin (25 m) impact melt rock unit below the suevite has velocity measurements of 3650–4350 m/s, density measurements of 2.26–2.37 g/cm3, and porosity measurements of 19–22%. We associate the low velocity, low density, and high porosity of suevite and impact melt rock with rapid emplacement, hydrothermal alteration products, and observations of pore space, vugs, and vesicles. The uplifted granitic peak ring materials have values of 4000–4200 m/s, 2.39–2.44 g/cm3, and 8–13% for velocity, density, and porosity, respectively; these values differ significantly from typical unaltered granite which has higher velocity and density, and lower porosity. The majority of Hole M0077A peak-ring velocity, density, and porosity measurements indicate considerable rock damage, and are consistent with numerical model predictions for peak-ring formation where the lithologies present within the peak ring represent some of the most shocked and damaged rocks in an impact basin. We integrate our results with previous seismic datasets to map the suevite near the borehole. We map suevite below the Paleogene sedimentary rock in the annular trough, on the peak ring, and in the central basin, implying that, post impact, suevite covered the entire floor of the impact basin. Suevite thickness is 100–165 m on the top of the peak ring but 200 m in the central basin, suggesting that suevite flowed downslope from the collapsing central uplift during and after peak-ring formation, accumulating preferentially within the central basin.

AB - Joint International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program Expedition 364 drilled into the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater. We present P-wave velocity, density, and porosity measurements from Hole M0077A that reveal unusual physical properties of the peak-ring rocks. Across the boundary between post-impact sedimentary rock and suevite (impact melt-bearing breccia) we measure a sharp decrease in velocity and density, and an increase in porosity. Velocity, density, and porosity values for the suevite are 2900–3700 m/s, 2.06–2.37 g/cm3, and 20–35%, respectively. The thin (25 m) impact melt rock unit below the suevite has velocity measurements of 3650–4350 m/s, density measurements of 2.26–2.37 g/cm3, and porosity measurements of 19–22%. We associate the low velocity, low density, and high porosity of suevite and impact melt rock with rapid emplacement, hydrothermal alteration products, and observations of pore space, vugs, and vesicles. The uplifted granitic peak ring materials have values of 4000–4200 m/s, 2.39–2.44 g/cm3, and 8–13% for velocity, density, and porosity, respectively; these values differ significantly from typical unaltered granite which has higher velocity and density, and lower porosity. The majority of Hole M0077A peak-ring velocity, density, and porosity measurements indicate considerable rock damage, and are consistent with numerical model predictions for peak-ring formation where the lithologies present within the peak ring represent some of the most shocked and damaged rocks in an impact basin. We integrate our results with previous seismic datasets to map the suevite near the borehole. We map suevite below the Paleogene sedimentary rock in the annular trough, on the peak ring, and in the central basin, implying that, post impact, suevite covered the entire floor of the impact basin. Suevite thickness is 100–165 m on the top of the peak ring but 200 m in the central basin, suggesting that suevite flowed downslope from the collapsing central uplift during and after peak-ring formation, accumulating preferentially within the central basin.

KW - Chicxulub

KW - impact crater

KW - peak ring

KW - physical properties

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047062192&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047062192&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.05.013

DO - 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.05.013

M3 - Article

VL - 495

SP - 1

EP - 11

JO - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

JF - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

SN - 0012-821X

ER -