Fast miniaturised sample preparation for the screening and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge

E.M. Kristenson, H.C. Neidig, R.J.J. Vreuls, U.A.T. Brinkman

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sludge are usually extracted by a technique such as Soxhlet with subsequent fractionation prior to long GC runs using GC-ECD or GC-HRMS. In this study, the extraction of selected chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) from a spiked sludge sample by three rapid techniques, i.e. ultrasonic (USE), pressurised-liquid (PLE), and microwave-assisted (MAE) extraction using a domestic microwave, was studied, with subsequent direct GC-ECD, GC-MS, or GC × GC-μECD analysis of the extracts. The main goal was to select an appropriate, and miniaturised, extraction method after only a brief optimisation and demonstrate the power of GC × GC analysis of dirty extracts. For PLE similar CB recoveries were found when extracting with either n-hexane or n-hexane/acetone (1/1). For USE and MAE, n-hexane/acetone (1/1) was the preferred extraction solvent. USE gave the best recoveries (80-95%; except 130% for CB 105). The only clean-up needed prior to GC-MS or GC × GC-μECD analysis was the removal of sulphur-containing compounds. GC-ECD was not suitable for these dirty extracts. The lowest LODs for the CBs (20 fg or 0.1 ng/g sludge) were found when combining USE and GC × GC-μECD, because of the powerful extraction, high separation power and excellent detectability provided by this technique. © 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1121-8
JournalJournal of Separation Science
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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