Fate and effects of two pesticide formulations in the invertebrate Folsomia candida using a natural agricultural soil

Tiago Simões, Sara C. Novais, Tiago Natal-da-Luz, Sara Leston, João Rosa, Fernando Ramos, Ana Sofia Vila Pouca, Andreia Freitas, Jorge Barbosa, Dick Roelofs, José P. Sousa, Nico M. van Straalen, Marco F.L. Lemos

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Degradation rates of two widely used pesticides were assessed, and acute and chronic effects on a standard invertebrate species investigated. An herbicide (Montana®) and fungicide (Bravo500®) formulations were investigated and results were compared to the isolated active substances of each formulation (glyphosate and chlorothalonil, respectively). Tests were performed using the invertebrate Folsomia candida as test species and an agricultural natural soil. Degradation rate tests were determined under aerobic conditions at 20 ± 2 °C, using an ecologically relevant concentration of 5 mg (a.i.) kg −1 of soil for both chemicals. Results demonstrated degradation half-lives (DT50) of 2.2 days for Montana® and 2.8 days when pure glyphosate was tested. Values of 1.1 and 2.9 days were registered for Bravo500® and its active substance chlorothalonil, respectively. There were no effects on survival for the tested concentrations of both forms of the herbicide (up to 17.3 mg kg −1 ). However, reproduction was affected, but only by the herbicide formulation, with an estimated EC50 value of 4.63 mg (a.i.) kg −1 . Effects were most unlikely related to glyphosate. For chlorothalonil, both tested forms affected survival and reproduction. The estimated LC50 values were 117 mg (a.i.) kg −1 and 73.5 mg (a.i.) kg −1 , and the EC50 41.3 mg (a.i.) kg −1 and 14.9 mg kg −1 for the formulation and the active ingredient, respectively. The effects of the active ingredient were significantly stronger, indicating the major influence of the active substance in the effects caused also by the formulation. Overall results demonstrate the importance of evaluating the effects of the formulated chemicals, as they are applied in the field, and not only their isolated active ingredients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-97
Number of pages8
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume675
Early online date15 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

glyphosate
tetrachloroisophthalonitrile
Candida
Herbicides
Pesticides
agricultural soil
pesticide
invertebrate
Soils
Degradation
Fungicides
herbicide
degradation
fungicide
oxic conditions
half life
Invertebrates
effect
soil

Keywords

  • Chlorothalonil
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Folsomia candida
  • Glyphosate
  • Natural soil

Cite this

Simões, Tiago ; Novais, Sara C. ; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago ; Leston, Sara ; Rosa, João ; Ramos, Fernando ; Pouca, Ana Sofia Vila ; Freitas, Andreia ; Barbosa, Jorge ; Roelofs, Dick ; Sousa, José P. ; van Straalen, Nico M. ; Lemos, Marco F.L. / Fate and effects of two pesticide formulations in the invertebrate Folsomia candida using a natural agricultural soil. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2019 ; Vol. 675. pp. 90-97.
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abstract = "Degradation rates of two widely used pesticides were assessed, and acute and chronic effects on a standard invertebrate species investigated. An herbicide (Montana{\circledR}) and fungicide (Bravo500{\circledR}) formulations were investigated and results were compared to the isolated active substances of each formulation (glyphosate and chlorothalonil, respectively). Tests were performed using the invertebrate Folsomia candida as test species and an agricultural natural soil. Degradation rate tests were determined under aerobic conditions at 20 ± 2 °C, using an ecologically relevant concentration of 5 mg (a.i.) kg −1 of soil for both chemicals. Results demonstrated degradation half-lives (DT50) of 2.2 days for Montana{\circledR} and 2.8 days when pure glyphosate was tested. Values of 1.1 and 2.9 days were registered for Bravo500{\circledR} and its active substance chlorothalonil, respectively. There were no effects on survival for the tested concentrations of both forms of the herbicide (up to 17.3 mg kg −1 ). However, reproduction was affected, but only by the herbicide formulation, with an estimated EC50 value of 4.63 mg (a.i.) kg −1 . Effects were most unlikely related to glyphosate. For chlorothalonil, both tested forms affected survival and reproduction. The estimated LC50 values were 117 mg (a.i.) kg −1 and 73.5 mg (a.i.) kg −1 , and the EC50 41.3 mg (a.i.) kg −1 and 14.9 mg kg −1 for the formulation and the active ingredient, respectively. The effects of the active ingredient were significantly stronger, indicating the major influence of the active substance in the effects caused also by the formulation. Overall results demonstrate the importance of evaluating the effects of the formulated chemicals, as they are applied in the field, and not only their isolated active ingredients.",
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author = "Tiago Sim{\~o}es and Novais, {Sara C.} and Tiago Natal-da-Luz and Sara Leston and Jo{\~a}o Rosa and Fernando Ramos and Pouca, {Ana Sofia Vila} and Andreia Freitas and Jorge Barbosa and Dick Roelofs and Sousa, {Jos{\'e} P.} and {van Straalen}, {Nico M.} and Lemos, {Marco F.L.}",
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Simões, T, Novais, SC, Natal-da-Luz, T, Leston, S, Rosa, J, Ramos, F, Pouca, ASV, Freitas, A, Barbosa, J, Roelofs, D, Sousa, JP, van Straalen, NM & Lemos, MFL 2019, 'Fate and effects of two pesticide formulations in the invertebrate Folsomia candida using a natural agricultural soil' Science of the Total Environment, vol. 675, pp. 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.191

Fate and effects of two pesticide formulations in the invertebrate Folsomia candida using a natural agricultural soil. / Simões, Tiago; Novais, Sara C.; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Leston, Sara; Rosa, João; Ramos, Fernando; Pouca, Ana Sofia Vila; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Roelofs, Dick; Sousa, José P.; van Straalen, Nico M.; Lemos, Marco F.L.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 675, 20.07.2019, p. 90-97.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Fate and effects of two pesticide formulations in the invertebrate Folsomia candida using a natural agricultural soil

AU - Simões, Tiago

AU - Novais, Sara C.

AU - Natal-da-Luz, Tiago

AU - Leston, Sara

AU - Rosa, João

AU - Ramos, Fernando

AU - Pouca, Ana Sofia Vila

AU - Freitas, Andreia

AU - Barbosa, Jorge

AU - Roelofs, Dick

AU - Sousa, José P.

AU - van Straalen, Nico M.

AU - Lemos, Marco F.L.

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KW - Ecotoxicology

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KW - Glyphosate

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