We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to filtered optical feedback. Depending on the feedback strength we find dynamical regimes with different dependence on the feedback phase. In particular, the influence of the feedback phase on cw emission and on frequency oscillations is characterized experimentally. We also measure the dependence of the filter mirror distance on the frequency oscillations. In general, good agreement between experiment and theory is found. © 2007 The American Physical Society.