Finding irony: An introduction of the Verbal Irony Procedure (VIP)

C.F. Burgers, M.J.P. van Mulken, P.J.M.C. Schellens

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1737 Downloads (Pure)


This article introduces the Verbal Irony Procedure (VIP), a first systematic method for identifying irony in natural discourse. The first section discusses previous operationalizations of irony and demonstrates that these are not explicit about which criteria were used to separate irony from non-irony. The second section argues why irony can be defined as an "utterance with a literal evaluation that is implicitly contrary to its intended evaluation." This section also explains why ironic utterances can be placed on an evaluation scale. In the third section, clauses are proposed as a good unit of analysis when looking at irony in natural discourse. The different steps of the VIP are then introduced in the fourth section and subsequently applied in a sample analysis of a natural text in the fifth section. The sixth section discusses a reliability analysis of the VIP protocol. The article ends with an outlook on how future research on verbal irony might benefit from applying the VIP. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)186-205
JournalMetaphor and Symbol
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Finding irony: An introduction of the Verbal Irony Procedure (VIP)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this