Objective The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of antibodies to Toxocara in Cuban schoolchildren. Methods The frequency of antibodies to Toxocara canis was assessed with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kit in school-aged children from two municipalities of Cuba. Univariate analysis and a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, municipality and co-infection with helminth and/or protozoa were conducted. Results The percentage of children with antibodies to Toxocara was 38.8% (392/1011; 95% CI=36.8-42.8). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with gender and co-infections with intestinal parasites, but not with age or municipality. Conclusion Cuban children are highly exposed to the Toxocara parasite, corresponding well with reported environmental contamination with Toxocara parasite eggs and T. canis prevalences in dogs in Cuba. Relevant policy makers and the Cuban population need to be better informed about this preventable infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.