The food system appropriates over 30% of all ice-free land, 70% of available freshwater and 20% of energy. Sustainable food production for 2.3 billion more people in the next four decades requires societal transition and industrial transformation. Protein supply is crucial, nutritionally and environmentally. Livestock products have disproportionate impacts on biodiversity loss, freshwater depletion, climate change and other issues. Use of natural resources must be reduced by applying the biorefinery principle and closing cycles. The food industry can contribute to a sustainable future by development of novel plant protein products (NPFs) and continual innovations in food preservation and waste reduction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.