Gender differences of patients at-risk for psychosis regarding symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity and functioning – Results from the EU-GEI study

EU-GEI High Risk Study Group

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders)and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS)for psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women)from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews. Results: In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-59
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Volume59
Early online date7 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

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Psychotic Disorders
Comorbidity
Cannabis
Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Schizophrenia
Gene-Environment Interaction
Mentally Ill Persons
Psychopathology
Substance-Related Disorders
Interviews

Keywords

  • Comorbidity
  • Functioning
  • Gender differences
  • Risk for psychosis
  • Sex differences

Cite this

@article{f32e2dd905704ddab460c5d8ce8c5089,
title = "Gender differences of patients at-risk for psychosis regarding symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity and functioning – Results from the EU-GEI study",
abstract = "Background: Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders)and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS)for psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women)from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews. Results: In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.",
keywords = "Comorbidity, Functioning, Gender differences, Risk for psychosis, Sex differences",
author = "Stephanie Menghini-M{\"u}ller and Erich Studerus and Sarah Ittig and Ulrike Heitz and Laura Egloff and Christina Andreou and Valmaggia, {Lucia R.} and Kempton, {Matthew J.} and {van der Gaag}, Mark and {de Haan}, Lieuwe and Barnaby Nelson and Neus Barrantes-Vidal and Merete Nordentoft and Stephan Ruhrmann and Gabriele Sachs and Rutten, {Bart P.} and Os, {Jim van} and Anita Riecher-R{\"o}ssler and {EU-GEI High Risk Study Group}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.04.007",
language = "English",
volume = "59",
pages = "52--59",
journal = "European Psychiatry",
issn = "0924-9338",
publisher = "Elsevier Masson",

}

Gender differences of patients at-risk for psychosis regarding symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity and functioning – Results from the EU-GEI study. / EU-GEI High Risk Study Group.

In: European Psychiatry, Vol. 59, 06.2019, p. 52-59.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gender differences of patients at-risk for psychosis regarding symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity and functioning – Results from the EU-GEI study

AU - Menghini-Müller, Stephanie

AU - Studerus, Erich

AU - Ittig, Sarah

AU - Heitz, Ulrike

AU - Egloff, Laura

AU - Andreou, Christina

AU - Valmaggia, Lucia R.

AU - Kempton, Matthew J.

AU - van der Gaag, Mark

AU - de Haan, Lieuwe

AU - Nelson, Barnaby

AU - Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

AU - Nordentoft, Merete

AU - Ruhrmann, Stephan

AU - Sachs, Gabriele

AU - Rutten, Bart P.

AU - Os, Jim van

AU - Riecher-Rössler, Anita

AU - EU-GEI High Risk Study Group

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - Background: Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders)and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS)for psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women)from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews. Results: In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.

AB - Background: Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders)and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS)for psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women)from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews. Results: In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.

KW - Comorbidity

KW - Functioning

KW - Gender differences

KW - Risk for psychosis

KW - Sex differences

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JF - European Psychiatry

SN - 0924-9338

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