Gender Stereotypes in the Family Context: Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings

Joyce J. Endendijk, Marleen G. Groeneveld, Sheila R. van Berkel, Elizabeth T. Hallers-Haalboom, Judi Mesman*, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Gender stereotypes of children and their parents were examined. Participants included 355 three-year-old children, their one-year-old siblings, and their mothers and fathers. Families were selected from the Western region of the Netherlands. Implicit gender stereotypes were assessed with computerized versions of the Action Inference Paradigm (AIP; both child and parents) and the Implicit Association Test (parent only). Parental explicit gender stereotypes were measured with the Child Rearing Sex-Role Attitude Scale. Findings revealed that mothers had stronger implicit gender stereotypes than fathers, whereas fathers had stronger explicit stereotypes than mothers. Fathers with same-gender children had stronger implicit gender stereotypes about adults than parents with mixed-gender children. For the children, girls' implicit gender stereotypes were significantly predicted by their mother's implicit gender stereotypes about children. This association could only be observed when the AIP was used to assess the stereotypes of both parent and child. A family systems model is applicable to the study of gender stereotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-590
Number of pages14
JournalSex Roles
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Gender
  • Gender stereotypes
  • Implicit and explicit stereotypes
  • Parents
  • Siblings


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