Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models (TKTD models) simulate the time-course of processes leading to toxic effects on organisms. Even for an apparently simple endpoint as survival, a large number of very different TKTD approaches exist. These differ in their underlying hypotheses and assumptions, although often the assumptions are not explicitly stated. Thus, our first objective was to illuminate the underlying assumptions (individual tolerance or stochastic death, speed of toxicodynamic damage recovery, threshold distribution) of various existing modeling approaches for survival and show how they relate to each other (e.g., critical body residue, critical target occupation, damage assessment, DEBtox survival, threshold damage). Our second objective was to develop a general unified threshold model for survival (GUTS), from which a large range of existing models can be derived as special cases. Specific assumptions to arrive at these special cases are made and explained. Finally, we illustrate how special cases of GUTS can be fitted to survival data. We envision that GUTS will help increase the application of TKTD models in ecotoxicological research as well as environmental risk assessment of chemicals. It unifies a wide range of previously unrelated approaches, clarifies their underlying assumptions, and facilitates further improvement in the modeling of survival under chemical stress. © 2011 American Chemical Society.