The heritability of age at first cigarette was estimated in 5883 Dutch twins and siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Heritability was 60% for males and 39% for females. Shared environmental influences were found in females only (30%). Linkage analyses were performed on data of 422 DZ twins and siblings from 175 families, forming 368 sibling pairs. Genomic regions that may harbor susceptibility loci for age at first cigarette with LOD score greater than 2 were detected on chromosomes 5, 14 and 22. A simultaneous analysis of these three genomic regions showed that most of the variance was explained by the linkage effect on chromosome 5 (205 cM). This peak encloses the D1A dopamine receptor gene which is a functional candidate gene for smoking behavior. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.