Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

Felix R Day, Deborah J Thompson, Hannes Helgason, Daniel I Chasman, Hilary Finucane, Patrick Sulem, Katherine S Ruth, Sean Whalen, Abhishek K Sarkar, Eva Albrecht, Elisabeth Altmaier, Marzyeh Amini, Caterina M Barbieri, Thibaud Boutin, Archie Campbell, Ellen Demerath, Ayush Giri, Chunyan He, Jouke J Hottenga, Robert KarlssonIvana Kolcic, Po-Ru Loh, Kathryn L Lunetta, Massimo Mangino, Brumat Marco, George McMahon, Sarah E Medland, Ilja M Nolte, Raymond Noordam, Teresa Nutile, Lavinia Paternoster, Natalia Perjakova, Eleonora Porcu, Lynda M Rose, Katharina E Schraut, Ayellet V Segrè, Albert V Smith, Lisette Stolk, Alexander Teumer, Irene L Andrulis, Stefania Bandinelli, Matthias W Beckmann, Javier Benitez, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Eco J C N de Geus, Hamdi Mbarek, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jenny A Visser, LifeLines Cohort Study

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Abstract

The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834-841
Number of pages8
JournalNature Genetics
Volume49
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017

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Day, F. R., Thompson, D. J., Helgason, H., Chasman, D. I., Finucane, H., Sulem, P., ... LifeLines Cohort Study (2017). Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk. Nature Genetics, 49(6), 834-841. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3841