Glacial geology of Saalian relief around Midwolda, eastern Groningen, the Netherlands

Sjoerd J. Kluiving*, Gerard Aalbersberg, Ronald T. Van Balen, Cornelis Kasse

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Due to canal-digging activities in 2011 and 2014, two small and one large temporary exposure, all ranging from 4 to 5 m in depth, were studied with respect to the sedimentology and structural geology, in the glacial ridge of Midwolda, Groningen, the Netherlands. The lowermost unit consists of clay of Elsterian age and is composed of glaciolacustrine and turbiditic deposits (Peelo Formation). These show synsedimentary deformations due to loading, as well as post-sedimentary Saalian glaciotectonic deformations, consisting of folding, and faulting structures. The overlying Saalian till sequence consists of two main units. The lower unit, with clear features of a subglacial deformation zone (e.g. lateral heterogeneity), has a local origin and strongly resembles the underlying Elsterian clay. Glacial tectonic and morphological observations indicate a primary NE-SW ice-flow direction. The second till layer has a sandy texture and high crystalline gravel content, while glacial-tectonic indicators point to a NW-SE ice-flow direction. The deformation of the till layers has caused a repetition and mixing of till layers, due to the last ice movement. The NW-SE ice movement is supported by the morphology as well as data from erratic gravel counts. Correlation with geological cross-sections strongly suggests regional subsurface control on ice-sheet behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-282
Number of pages22
JournalGeologie en Mijnbouw = Netherlands Journal of Geosciences
Issue number4
Early online date27 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

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