Gaseous and particulate chlorine species play an important role in modulating tropospheric oxidation capacity, aerosol water uptake, visibility degradation, and human health. The lack of recent global continental chlorine emissions has hindered modeling studies of the role of chlorine in the atmosphere. Here, we develop a comprehensive global emission inventory of gaseous HCl and particulate Cl-(pCl), including 35 sources categorized in six source sectors based on published up-to-date activity data and emission factors. These emissions are gridded at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° for the years 1960 to 2014. The estimated emissions of HCl and pCl in 2014 are 2354 (1661-3201) and 2321 (930-3264) Gg Cl a-1, respectively. Emissions of HCl are mostly from open waste burning (38%), open biomass burning (19%), energy (19%), and residential (13%) sectors, and the major sources classified by fuel type are combustion of waste (43%), biomass (32%), and coal (25%). Emissions of pCl are mostly from biofuel (29%) and open biomass burning processes (44%). The sectoral and spatial distributions of HCl and pCl emissions are very heterogeneous along the study period, and the temporal trends are mainly driven by the changes in emission factors, energy intensity, economy, and population.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by P.L.’s start-up funding from the Georgia Institute of Technology. The development of PKU-FUEL was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41991312, 41830641, 41922057, and 41821005), Chinese Academy of Science (XDA23010100), Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (2019QZKK0605), and Center for Computational Science and Engineering at Southern University of Science and Technology. A part of this work was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA grant number R835880) and the National Science Foundation (NSF SRN grant number 1444745). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the grantee and do not necessarily represent the official views of the supporting agencies. Further, the US government does not endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services mentioned in the publication.
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- air pollution
- atmospheric aerosols
- emission inventory
- tropospheric chemistry