Cerebellar granule cells (GCs) make up the majority of all neurons in the vertebrate brain, but heterogeneities among GCs and potential functional consequences are poorly understood. Here, we identified unexpected gradients in the biophysical properties of GCs in mice. GCs closer to the white matter (inner-zone GCs) had higher firing thresholds and could sustain firing with larger current inputs than GCs closer to the Purkinje cell layer (outer-zone GCs). Dynamic Clamp experiments showed that inner- and outer-zone GCs preferentially respond to high- and low-frequency mossy fiber inputs, respectively, enabling dispersion of the mossy fiber input into its frequency components as performed by a Fourier transformation. Furthermore, inner-zone GCs have faster axonal conduction velocity and elicit faster synaptic potentials in Purkinje cells. Neuronal network modeling revealed that these gradients improve spike-timing precision of Purkinje cells and decrease the number of GCs required to learn spike-sequences. Thus, our study uncovers biophysical gradients in the cerebellar cortex enabling a Fourier-like transformation of mossy fiber inputs.