The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding with diamond burs and low-temperature aging on the material surface characteristics and bacteria adhesion on a yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) surface. Y-TZP specimens were made from presintered blocks, sintered as recommended by the manufacturer, and assigned into six groups according to two factors—grinding (three levels: as sintered, grinding with extra-fine diamond bur [25-μm grit], and grinding with coarse diamond bur [181-μm grit]) and hydrothermal aging—to promote low-temperature degradation (two levels: presence/absence). Phase transformation (X-ray diffractometer), surface roughness, micromorphological patterns (atomic force microscopy), and contact angle (goniometer) were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion (colony-forming units [CFU]/biofilm) was quantified using an in vitro polymicrobial biofilm model. Both the surface treatment and hydrothermal aging promoted an increase in m-phase content. Roughness values increased as a function of increasing bur grit sizes. Grinding with a coarse diamond bur resulted in significantly lower values of contact angle (p<0.05) when compared with the extra-fine and control groups, while there were no differences (p<0.05) after hydrothermal aging simulation. The CFU/biofilm results showed that neither the surface treatment nor hydrothermal aging simulation significantly affected the bacteria adherence (p>0.05). Grinding with diamond burs and hydrothermal aging modified the Y-TZP surface properties; however, these properties had no effect on the amount of bacteria adhesion on the material surface.