Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood

Natalie J. Forde, Lisa Ronan, Marcel P. Zwiers, Lizanne J.S. Schweren, Aaron F. Alexander-Bloch, Barbara Franke, Stephen V. Faraone, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Catharina A. Hartman, Jan K. Buitelaar, Pieter J. Hoekstra

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8.3–29.2 years, M[SD] = 16.5[3.4]) were collected at two sites and processed with FreeSurfer and Caret software packages. Surface indices were extracted per cortex area (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula, and cingulate). Correlation analyses between the surface indices were conducted and age curves were modelled using generalized additive mixed-effect models. IC showed region-specific associations with LGI, SA, and CT, as did CT with LGI. SA was positively associated with LGI in all regions and CT in none. CT and LGI, but not SA, were inversely associated with age in all regions. IC was inversely associated with age in all but the occipital region. For all regions, males had larger cortical SA than females. Males also had larger LGI in all regions and larger IC of the frontal area; however, these effects were accounted for by sex differences in SA. There were no age-by-sex interactions. The study of IC adds a semi-independent, sensitive measure of cortical morphology that relates to the underlying cytoarchitecture and may aid understanding of normal brain development and deviations from it.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3653-3663
Number of pages11
JournalBrain Structure and Function
Volume222
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Adolescent Development
Occipital Lobe
Brain
Frontal Lobe
Sex Characteristics
Healthy Volunteers
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Software

Keywords

  • Cortex
  • Cortical thickness
  • Intrinsic curvature
  • Local gyrification index
  • Neuro-development
  • Surface area

Cite this

Forde, N. J., Ronan, L., Zwiers, M. P., Schweren, L. J. S., Alexander-Bloch, A. F., Franke, B., ... Hoekstra, P. J. (2017). Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood. Brain Structure and Function, 222(8), 3653-3663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0
Forde, Natalie J. ; Ronan, Lisa ; Zwiers, Marcel P. ; Schweren, Lizanne J.S. ; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F. ; Franke, Barbara ; Faraone, Stephen V. ; Oosterlaan, Jaap ; Heslenfeld, Dirk J. ; Hartman, Catharina A. ; Buitelaar, Jan K. ; Hoekstra, Pieter J. / Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood. In: Brain Structure and Function. 2017 ; Vol. 222, No. 8. pp. 3653-3663.
@article{7554ba0816a54a7ca35b283d0bf4eec3,
title = "Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood",
abstract = "Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8.3–29.2 years, M[SD] = 16.5[3.4]) were collected at two sites and processed with FreeSurfer and Caret software packages. Surface indices were extracted per cortex area (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula, and cingulate). Correlation analyses between the surface indices were conducted and age curves were modelled using generalized additive mixed-effect models. IC showed region-specific associations with LGI, SA, and CT, as did CT with LGI. SA was positively associated with LGI in all regions and CT in none. CT and LGI, but not SA, were inversely associated with age in all regions. IC was inversely associated with age in all but the occipital region. For all regions, males had larger cortical SA than females. Males also had larger LGI in all regions and larger IC of the frontal area; however, these effects were accounted for by sex differences in SA. There were no age-by-sex interactions. The study of IC adds a semi-independent, sensitive measure of cortical morphology that relates to the underlying cytoarchitecture and may aid understanding of normal brain development and deviations from it.",
keywords = "Cortex, Cortical thickness, Intrinsic curvature, Local gyrification index, Neuro-development, Surface area",
author = "Forde, {Natalie J.} and Lisa Ronan and Zwiers, {Marcel P.} and Schweren, {Lizanne J.S.} and Alexander-Bloch, {Aaron F.} and Barbara Franke and Faraone, {Stephen V.} and Jaap Oosterlaan and Heslenfeld, {Dirk J.} and Hartman, {Catharina A.} and Buitelaar, {Jan K.} and Hoekstra, {Pieter J.}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0",
language = "English",
volume = "222",
pages = "3653--3663",
journal = "Brain Structure and Function",
issn = "1863-2653",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "8",

}

Forde, NJ, Ronan, L, Zwiers, MP, Schweren, LJS, Alexander-Bloch, AF, Franke, B, Faraone, SV, Oosterlaan, J, Heslenfeld, DJ, Hartman, CA, Buitelaar, JK & Hoekstra, PJ 2017, 'Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood' Brain Structure and Function, vol. 222, no. 8, pp. 3653-3663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0

Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood. / Forde, Natalie J.; Ronan, Lisa; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Schweren, Lizanne J.S.; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F.; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

In: Brain Structure and Function, Vol. 222, No. 8, 2017, p. 3653-3663.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood

AU - Forde, Natalie J.

AU - Ronan, Lisa

AU - Zwiers, Marcel P.

AU - Schweren, Lizanne J.S.

AU - Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F.

AU - Franke, Barbara

AU - Faraone, Stephen V.

AU - Oosterlaan, Jaap

AU - Heslenfeld, Dirk J.

AU - Hartman, Catharina A.

AU - Buitelaar, Jan K.

AU - Hoekstra, Pieter J.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8.3–29.2 years, M[SD] = 16.5[3.4]) were collected at two sites and processed with FreeSurfer and Caret software packages. Surface indices were extracted per cortex area (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula, and cingulate). Correlation analyses between the surface indices were conducted and age curves were modelled using generalized additive mixed-effect models. IC showed region-specific associations with LGI, SA, and CT, as did CT with LGI. SA was positively associated with LGI in all regions and CT in none. CT and LGI, but not SA, were inversely associated with age in all regions. IC was inversely associated with age in all but the occipital region. For all regions, males had larger cortical SA than females. Males also had larger LGI in all regions and larger IC of the frontal area; however, these effects were accounted for by sex differences in SA. There were no age-by-sex interactions. The study of IC adds a semi-independent, sensitive measure of cortical morphology that relates to the underlying cytoarchitecture and may aid understanding of normal brain development and deviations from it.

AB - Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8.3–29.2 years, M[SD] = 16.5[3.4]) were collected at two sites and processed with FreeSurfer and Caret software packages. Surface indices were extracted per cortex area (frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula, and cingulate). Correlation analyses between the surface indices were conducted and age curves were modelled using generalized additive mixed-effect models. IC showed region-specific associations with LGI, SA, and CT, as did CT with LGI. SA was positively associated with LGI in all regions and CT in none. CT and LGI, but not SA, were inversely associated with age in all regions. IC was inversely associated with age in all but the occipital region. For all regions, males had larger cortical SA than females. Males also had larger LGI in all regions and larger IC of the frontal area; however, these effects were accounted for by sex differences in SA. There were no age-by-sex interactions. The study of IC adds a semi-independent, sensitive measure of cortical morphology that relates to the underlying cytoarchitecture and may aid understanding of normal brain development and deviations from it.

KW - Cortex

KW - Cortical thickness

KW - Intrinsic curvature

KW - Local gyrification index

KW - Neuro-development

KW - Surface area

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85017518352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85017518352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0

DO - 10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0

M3 - Article

VL - 222

SP - 3653

EP - 3663

JO - Brain Structure and Function

JF - Brain Structure and Function

SN - 1863-2653

IS - 8

ER -

Forde NJ, Ronan L, Zwiers MP, Schweren LJS, Alexander-Bloch AF, Franke B et al. Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood. Brain Structure and Function. 2017;222(8):3653-3663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1424-0