Heart rate and reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD

M. Luman, J. Oosterlaan, C. Hyde, C.S. van Meel, J.A. Sergeant

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Abstract

Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs) following feedback and heart rate variability (HRV) in the low frequency band (.04-.08 Hz), a measure of mental effort, were calculated during a time production paradigm. Performance was coupled to monetary gain, loss or feedback-only in a cross-over design. Results: Children with ADHD exhibited smaller HRRs to feedback compared to controls. HRV of children with ADHD decreased when performance was coupled to reward or response cost compared to feedback-only. HRV of controls was similar across conditions. Conclusions: Children with ADHD were characterised by (a) possible abnormalities in feedback monitoring and (b) motivational deficits, when no external reinforcement is present. © 2007 The Authors Journal compilation 2007 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)890-898
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume48
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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