Helical Contributions Mediate Light-Activated Conformational Change in the LOV2 Domain of Avena sativa Phototropin 1

Josiah P. Zayner, Tilo Mathes, Tobin R. Sosnick, John T.M. Kennis

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungi contain flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains that function as blue light sensors to control cellular responses to light. In the second LOV domain of phototropins, called LOV2 domains, blue light illumination leads to covalent bond formation between protein and flavin that induces the dissociation and unfolding of a C-terminally attached α helix (Jα) and the N-terminal helix (A′α). To date, the majority of studies on these domains have focused on versions that contain truncations in the termini, which creates difficulties when extrapolating to the much larger proteins that contain these domains. Here, we study the influence of deletions and extensions of the A′α helix of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) on the light-triggered structural response of the protein by Fourier-transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Deletion of the A′α helix abolishes the light-induced unfolding of Jα, whereas extensions of the A′α helix lead to an attenuated structural change of Jα. These results are different from shorter constructs, indicating that the conformational changes in full-length phototropin LOV domains might not be as large as previously assumed, and that the well-characterized full unfolding of the Jα helix in AsLOV2 with short A′α helices may be considered a truncation artifact. It also suggests that the N- and C-terminal helices of phot-LOV2 domains are necessary for allosteric regulation of the phototropin kinase domain and may provide a basis for signal integration of LOV1 and LOV2 domains in phototropins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1238-1243
Number of pages6
JournalACS Omega
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2019

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Phototropins
Oxygen
Proteins
Electric potential
Covalent bonds
Algae
Fungi
Bacteria
Fourier transforms
Phosphotransferases
Lighting
Spectroscopy
Infrared radiation

Cite this

Zayner, Josiah P. ; Mathes, Tilo ; Sosnick, Tobin R. ; Kennis, John T.M. / Helical Contributions Mediate Light-Activated Conformational Change in the LOV2 Domain of Avena sativa Phototropin 1. In: ACS Omega. 2019 ; Vol. 4, No. 1. pp. 1238-1243.
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abstract = "Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungi contain flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains that function as blue light sensors to control cellular responses to light. In the second LOV domain of phototropins, called LOV2 domains, blue light illumination leads to covalent bond formation between protein and flavin that induces the dissociation and unfolding of a C-terminally attached α helix (Jα) and the N-terminal helix (A′α). To date, the majority of studies on these domains have focused on versions that contain truncations in the termini, which creates difficulties when extrapolating to the much larger proteins that contain these domains. Here, we study the influence of deletions and extensions of the A′α helix of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) on the light-triggered structural response of the protein by Fourier-transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Deletion of the A′α helix abolishes the light-induced unfolding of Jα, whereas extensions of the A′α helix lead to an attenuated structural change of Jα. These results are different from shorter constructs, indicating that the conformational changes in full-length phototropin LOV domains might not be as large as previously assumed, and that the well-characterized full unfolding of the Jα helix in AsLOV2 with short A′α helices may be considered a truncation artifact. It also suggests that the N- and C-terminal helices of phot-LOV2 domains are necessary for allosteric regulation of the phototropin kinase domain and may provide a basis for signal integration of LOV1 and LOV2 domains in phototropins.",
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Helical Contributions Mediate Light-Activated Conformational Change in the LOV2 Domain of Avena sativa Phototropin 1. / Zayner, Josiah P.; Mathes, Tilo; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Kennis, John T.M.

In: ACS Omega, Vol. 4, No. 1, 15.01.2019, p. 1238-1243.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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N2 - Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungi contain flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains that function as blue light sensors to control cellular responses to light. In the second LOV domain of phototropins, called LOV2 domains, blue light illumination leads to covalent bond formation between protein and flavin that induces the dissociation and unfolding of a C-terminally attached α helix (Jα) and the N-terminal helix (A′α). To date, the majority of studies on these domains have focused on versions that contain truncations in the termini, which creates difficulties when extrapolating to the much larger proteins that contain these domains. Here, we study the influence of deletions and extensions of the A′α helix of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) on the light-triggered structural response of the protein by Fourier-transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Deletion of the A′α helix abolishes the light-induced unfolding of Jα, whereas extensions of the A′α helix lead to an attenuated structural change of Jα. These results are different from shorter constructs, indicating that the conformational changes in full-length phototropin LOV domains might not be as large as previously assumed, and that the well-characterized full unfolding of the Jα helix in AsLOV2 with short A′α helices may be considered a truncation artifact. It also suggests that the N- and C-terminal helices of phot-LOV2 domains are necessary for allosteric regulation of the phototropin kinase domain and may provide a basis for signal integration of LOV1 and LOV2 domains in phototropins.

AB - Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungi contain flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains that function as blue light sensors to control cellular responses to light. In the second LOV domain of phototropins, called LOV2 domains, blue light illumination leads to covalent bond formation between protein and flavin that induces the dissociation and unfolding of a C-terminally attached α helix (Jα) and the N-terminal helix (A′α). To date, the majority of studies on these domains have focused on versions that contain truncations in the termini, which creates difficulties when extrapolating to the much larger proteins that contain these domains. Here, we study the influence of deletions and extensions of the A′α helix of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) on the light-triggered structural response of the protein by Fourier-transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Deletion of the A′α helix abolishes the light-induced unfolding of Jα, whereas extensions of the A′α helix lead to an attenuated structural change of Jα. These results are different from shorter constructs, indicating that the conformational changes in full-length phototropin LOV domains might not be as large as previously assumed, and that the well-characterized full unfolding of the Jα helix in AsLOV2 with short A′α helices may be considered a truncation artifact. It also suggests that the N- and C-terminal helices of phot-LOV2 domains are necessary for allosteric regulation of the phototropin kinase domain and may provide a basis for signal integration of LOV1 and LOV2 domains in phototropins.

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