In this multi-center, naturalistic study, the effectiveness of naltrexone maintenance combined with the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) was investigated in detoxified, opioid-dependent patients (N=272). Patients were recruited from methadone maintenance programs. With intention-to-treat analysis, 10 months of treatment yielded abstinence rates of 28% and 32% at 10 and 16 months after detoxification. The cumulative abstinence rate at 16 months was 24%. Quality of life, craving, general psychopathology, use of other psychoactive substances, and addiction severity of the abstinent group significantly improved when compared to the relapsed group. This abstinence-oriented approach appears to be a feasible goal, and remains an important option next to long-term methadone maintenance in the management of opioid dependence.