It has been suggested that the expectation of repeated (versus single) interaction might promote cooperation in social dilemmas. One key question is whether the anticipation of repeated interaction may promote cooperation in those with prosocial orientations, with individualistic orientations, or both. We advance the argument that repeated interaction may be perceived in terms of opportunities for punishing noncooperation and rewarding cooperation (reciprocity), and that such "contingencies" should have a relatively greater impact on individualists' motivations to cooperate. Consistent with hypotheses, we found evidence for the idea that the mere anticipation of repeated (versus single-trial) interaction promoted cooperation, but more so in those who pursue primarily individualistic, self-interested goals than those who are more prone to pursue prosocial goals. © The Author(s) 2011.