Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine: Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity

Yongjie Zhang, Shalenie P den Braver-Sewradj, J Chris Vos, Nico P E Vermeulen, Jan N M Commandeur

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. However, the inactivation of the reactive QIs by detoxifying enzymes such as human glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreducatase 1 (NQO1) has not been characterized yet. In the present study, the activities of 15 recombinant human GSTs and NQO1 in the inactivation of reactive QIs of AQ and its pharmacological active metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) were investigated. The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of AQ and DEAQ. Additionally, NQO1 was shown to inactivate these QIs by reduction. Simulation of the variability of cytosolic GST-activity based on the hepatic GST contents from 22 liver donors, showed a large variation in cytosolic inactivation of QIs by GSH, especially at a reduced GSH-concentration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a low hepatic expression of the active GSTs and NQO1 may increase the susceptibility of patients to AQ idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-91
Number of pages9
JournalToxicology Letters
Volume275
Early online date3 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Amodiaquine
Glutathione Transferase
Liver
NAD
Toxicity
Oxidoreductases
Agranulocytosis
Antimalarials
Therapeutic Uses
Cytochromes
Metabolites
Peroxidase
Protein Isoforms
benzoquinone
amodiaquine quinoneimine
desethylamodiaquine
Tissue Donors
Pharmacology
Enzymes
Proteins

Keywords

  • Journal Article

Cite this

@article{4f93e5621c234c6eac71576a9934cfb2,
title = "Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine: Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity",
abstract = "Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. However, the inactivation of the reactive QIs by detoxifying enzymes such as human glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreducatase 1 (NQO1) has not been characterized yet. In the present study, the activities of 15 recombinant human GSTs and NQO1 in the inactivation of reactive QIs of AQ and its pharmacological active metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) were investigated. The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of AQ and DEAQ. Additionally, NQO1 was shown to inactivate these QIs by reduction. Simulation of the variability of cytosolic GST-activity based on the hepatic GST contents from 22 liver donors, showed a large variation in cytosolic inactivation of QIs by GSH, especially at a reduced GSH-concentration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a low hepatic expression of the active GSTs and NQO1 may increase the susceptibility of patients to AQ idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.",
keywords = "Journal Article",
author = "Yongjie Zhang and {den Braver-Sewradj}, {Shalenie P} and Vos, {J Chris} and Vermeulen, {Nico P E} and Commandeur, {Jan N M}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.05.003",
language = "English",
volume = "275",
pages = "83--91",
journal = "Toxicology Letters",
issn = "0378-4274",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine

T2 - Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity

AU - Zhang, Yongjie

AU - den Braver-Sewradj, Shalenie P

AU - Vos, J Chris

AU - Vermeulen, Nico P E

AU - Commandeur, Jan N M

N1 - Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. However, the inactivation of the reactive QIs by detoxifying enzymes such as human glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreducatase 1 (NQO1) has not been characterized yet. In the present study, the activities of 15 recombinant human GSTs and NQO1 in the inactivation of reactive QIs of AQ and its pharmacological active metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) were investigated. The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of AQ and DEAQ. Additionally, NQO1 was shown to inactivate these QIs by reduction. Simulation of the variability of cytosolic GST-activity based on the hepatic GST contents from 22 liver donors, showed a large variation in cytosolic inactivation of QIs by GSH, especially at a reduced GSH-concentration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a low hepatic expression of the active GSTs and NQO1 may increase the susceptibility of patients to AQ idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.

AB - Amodiaquine (AQ), an antimalarial drug, widely prescribed in endemic areas of Africa and Asia, is used in combination with artesunate as recommended by the WHO. However, due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis, the therapeutic use has been discontinued in most countries. Oxidative bioactivation to protein-reactive quinonimines (QIs) by hepatic cytochrome P450s and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been suggested to be important mechanisms underlying AQ idiosyncratic toxicity. However, the inactivation of the reactive QIs by detoxifying enzymes such as human glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreducatase 1 (NQO1) has not been characterized yet. In the present study, the activities of 15 recombinant human GSTs and NQO1 in the inactivation of reactive QIs of AQ and its pharmacological active metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) were investigated. The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of AQ and DEAQ. Additionally, NQO1 was shown to inactivate these QIs by reduction. Simulation of the variability of cytosolic GST-activity based on the hepatic GST contents from 22 liver donors, showed a large variation in cytosolic inactivation of QIs by GSH, especially at a reduced GSH-concentration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that a low hepatic expression of the active GSTs and NQO1 may increase the susceptibility of patients to AQ idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.

KW - Journal Article

U2 - 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.05.003

DO - 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.05.003

M3 - Article

VL - 275

SP - 83

EP - 91

JO - Toxicology Letters

JF - Toxicology Letters

SN - 0378-4274

ER -