© 2021 The AuthorsMultiple transitions between gravity levels will occur during planetary exploration missions. In reaction to these gravitational transitions, physiological adaptation will be initiated. However, the physiological effects of long-duration exposures to hypogravity and hypergravity are poorly understood. In this review we present an overview of how humans perceive gravity, review sex-based differences in adaptation to changes in gravity, and introduces rather limited evidence currently available related to the effects of partial gravity. The paper then argues that there is a need for more research to better understand the extent and dynamics of physiological adaptation mechanisms during gravity level transitions in spaceflight and proposes a need for artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure and explore the efficacy of AG as countermeasure between short and very long-arm centrifuges. Discussed here are the effects of acute short-arm AG application. The topical review also discusses the usage of chronic AG application via the innovative large-radius Hypergravity Human Habitat, H3, concept.