Humans adjust control to initial squat depth in vertical squat jumping

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the control strategy that humans use in jumping. Eight male gymnasts performed vertical squat jumps from five initial postures that differed in squat depth (P1-P5) while kinematic data, ground reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMGs) of leg muscles were collected; the latter were rectified and smoothed to obtain SREMGs. P3 was the preferred initial posture; in P1, P2, P4, and P5 height of the mass center was +13, +7, -7 and -14 cm, respectively, relative to that in P3. Furthermore, maximum-height jumps from the initial postures observed in the subjects were simulated with a model comprising four body segments and six Hill-type muscles. The only input was the onset of stimulation of each of the muscles (Stim). The subjects were able to perform well-coordinated squat jumps from all postures. Peak SREMG levels did not vary among P1-P5, but SREMG onset of plantarflexors occurred before that of gluteus maximus in P1 and >90 ms after that in P5 (P < 0.05). In the simulation study, similar systematic shifts occurred in Stim onsets across the optimal control solutions for jumps from P1-P5. Because the adjustments in SREMG onsets to initial posture observed in the subjects were very similar to the adjustments in optimal Stim onsets of the model, it was concluded that the SREMG adjustments were functional, in the sense that they contributed to achieving the greatest jump height possible from each initial posture. For the model, we were able to develop a mapping from initial posture to Stim onsets that generated successful jumps from P1-P5. It appears that to explain how subjects adjust their control to initial posture there is no need to assume that the brain contains an internal dynamics model of the musculoskeletal system. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages1428-1440
    JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
    Volume105
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

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    Posture
    Muscles
    Musculoskeletal System
    Electromyography
    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Leg
    Brain

    Cite this

    @article{7f73f3cee7ea46febbd0b92c67a5b51b,
    title = "Humans adjust control to initial squat depth in vertical squat jumping",
    abstract = "The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the control strategy that humans use in jumping. Eight male gymnasts performed vertical squat jumps from five initial postures that differed in squat depth (P1-P5) while kinematic data, ground reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMGs) of leg muscles were collected; the latter were rectified and smoothed to obtain SREMGs. P3 was the preferred initial posture; in P1, P2, P4, and P5 height of the mass center was +13, +7, -7 and -14 cm, respectively, relative to that in P3. Furthermore, maximum-height jumps from the initial postures observed in the subjects were simulated with a model comprising four body segments and six Hill-type muscles. The only input was the onset of stimulation of each of the muscles (Stim). The subjects were able to perform well-coordinated squat jumps from all postures. Peak SREMG levels did not vary among P1-P5, but SREMG onset of plantarflexors occurred before that of gluteus maximus in P1 and >90 ms after that in P5 (P < 0.05). In the simulation study, similar systematic shifts occurred in Stim onsets across the optimal control solutions for jumps from P1-P5. Because the adjustments in SREMG onsets to initial posture observed in the subjects were very similar to the adjustments in optimal Stim onsets of the model, it was concluded that the SREMG adjustments were functional, in the sense that they contributed to achieving the greatest jump height possible from each initial posture. For the model, we were able to develop a mapping from initial posture to Stim onsets that generated successful jumps from P1-P5. It appears that to explain how subjects adjust their control to initial posture there is no need to assume that the brain contains an internal dynamics model of the musculoskeletal system. Copyright {\circledC} 2008 the American Physiological Society.",
    author = "M.F. Bobbert and L.J.R. Casius and I.W. Sijpkens and R.T. Jaspers",
    year = "2008",
    doi = "10.1152/japplphysiol.90571.2008",
    language = "English",
    volume = "105",
    pages = "1428--1440",
    journal = "Journal of Applied Physiology",
    issn = "8750-7587",
    publisher = "American Physiological Society",
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    }

    Humans adjust control to initial squat depth in vertical squat jumping. / Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; Sijpkens, I.W.; Jaspers, R.T.

    In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 105, No. 5, 2008, p. 1428-1440.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Humans adjust control to initial squat depth in vertical squat jumping

    AU - Bobbert, M.F.

    AU - Casius, L.J.R.

    AU - Sijpkens, I.W.

    AU - Jaspers, R.T.

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the control strategy that humans use in jumping. Eight male gymnasts performed vertical squat jumps from five initial postures that differed in squat depth (P1-P5) while kinematic data, ground reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMGs) of leg muscles were collected; the latter were rectified and smoothed to obtain SREMGs. P3 was the preferred initial posture; in P1, P2, P4, and P5 height of the mass center was +13, +7, -7 and -14 cm, respectively, relative to that in P3. Furthermore, maximum-height jumps from the initial postures observed in the subjects were simulated with a model comprising four body segments and six Hill-type muscles. The only input was the onset of stimulation of each of the muscles (Stim). The subjects were able to perform well-coordinated squat jumps from all postures. Peak SREMG levels did not vary among P1-P5, but SREMG onset of plantarflexors occurred before that of gluteus maximus in P1 and >90 ms after that in P5 (P < 0.05). In the simulation study, similar systematic shifts occurred in Stim onsets across the optimal control solutions for jumps from P1-P5. Because the adjustments in SREMG onsets to initial posture observed in the subjects were very similar to the adjustments in optimal Stim onsets of the model, it was concluded that the SREMG adjustments were functional, in the sense that they contributed to achieving the greatest jump height possible from each initial posture. For the model, we were able to develop a mapping from initial posture to Stim onsets that generated successful jumps from P1-P5. It appears that to explain how subjects adjust their control to initial posture there is no need to assume that the brain contains an internal dynamics model of the musculoskeletal system. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

    AB - The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the control strategy that humans use in jumping. Eight male gymnasts performed vertical squat jumps from five initial postures that differed in squat depth (P1-P5) while kinematic data, ground reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMGs) of leg muscles were collected; the latter were rectified and smoothed to obtain SREMGs. P3 was the preferred initial posture; in P1, P2, P4, and P5 height of the mass center was +13, +7, -7 and -14 cm, respectively, relative to that in P3. Furthermore, maximum-height jumps from the initial postures observed in the subjects were simulated with a model comprising four body segments and six Hill-type muscles. The only input was the onset of stimulation of each of the muscles (Stim). The subjects were able to perform well-coordinated squat jumps from all postures. Peak SREMG levels did not vary among P1-P5, but SREMG onset of plantarflexors occurred before that of gluteus maximus in P1 and >90 ms after that in P5 (P < 0.05). In the simulation study, similar systematic shifts occurred in Stim onsets across the optimal control solutions for jumps from P1-P5. Because the adjustments in SREMG onsets to initial posture observed in the subjects were very similar to the adjustments in optimal Stim onsets of the model, it was concluded that the SREMG adjustments were functional, in the sense that they contributed to achieving the greatest jump height possible from each initial posture. For the model, we were able to develop a mapping from initial posture to Stim onsets that generated successful jumps from P1-P5. It appears that to explain how subjects adjust their control to initial posture there is no need to assume that the brain contains an internal dynamics model of the musculoskeletal system. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

    U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.90571.2008

    DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.90571.2008

    M3 - Article

    VL - 105

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    JO - Journal of Applied Physiology

    T2 - Journal of Applied Physiology

    JF - Journal of Applied Physiology

    SN - 8750-7587

    IS - 5

    ER -