IL-1β Damages Fibrocartilage and Upregulates MMP-13 Expression in Fibrochondrocytes in the Condyle of the Temporomandibular Joint

H. Tabeian, B.F. Betti, C. dos Santos Cirqueira, T.J. de Vries, F. Lobbezoo, A.V. ter Linde, B. Zandieh-Doulabi, M.I. Koenders, V. Everts, A.D. Bakker

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which differs anatomically and biochemically from hyaline cartilage-covered joints, is an under-recognized joint in arthritic disease, even though TMJ damage can have deleterious effects on physical appearance, pain and function. Here, we analyzed the effect of IL-1β, a cytokine highly expressed in arthritic joints, on TMJ fibrocartilage-derived cells, and we investigated the modulatory effect of mechanical loading on IL-1β-induced expression of catabolic enzymes. TMJ cartilage degradation was analyzed in 8-11-week-old mice deficient for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA-/-) and wild-type controls. Cells were isolated from the juvenile porcine condyle, fossa, and disc, grown in agarose gels, and subjected to IL-1β (0.1-10 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Expression of catabolic enzymes (ADAMTS and MMPs) was quantified by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Porcine condylar cells were stimulated with IL-1β for 12 h with IL-1β, followed by 8 h of 6% dynamic mechanical (tensile) strain, and gene expression of MMPs was quantified. Early signs of condylar cartilage damage were apparent in IL-1RA-/- mice. In porcine cells, IL-1β strongly increased expression of the aggrecanases ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 by fibrochondrocytes from the fossa (13-fold and 7-fold) and enhanced the number of MMP-13 protein-expressing condylar cells (8-fold). Mechanical loading significantly lowered (3-fold) IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression by condylar fibrochondrocytes. IL-1β induces TMJ condylar cartilage damage, possibly by enhancing MMP-13 production. Mechanical loading reduces IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression, suggesting that mechanical stimuli may prevent cartilage damage of the TMJ in arthritic patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2260
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


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