Impact of the Good Behavior Game on special education teachers

Juliette A.B. Hopman*, Pol A.C. van Lier, Jan van der Ende, Chris Struiksma, Theo Wubbels, Frank C. Verhulst, Athanasios Maras, Linda D. Breeman, Nouchka T. Tick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study tested effects of a program that offers teachers universal classroom management strategies, on teachers’ burnout symptoms and self-efficacy, and their teaching behaviors. Data were collected from 147 teachers (mean age = 38.4 years, SD = 10.8) in 15 special secondary education schools for students with emotional and behavioral problems, at the start and end of the school year. Schools were randomly assigned to the experimental condition or a care-as-usual condition. Results show that the program impacted beneficially on self-reported levels of emotional exhaustion, and self-efficacy in engaging students and in classroom management, but not on teaching behaviors. Implications of this study for the professional development of teachers in special education and research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)350-368
Number of pages19
JournalTeachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2018


  • Good Behavior Game
  • special education
  • teacher burnout symptoms
  • teacher self-efficacy
  • teaching behaviors


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