Implications of the use of artificial intelligence by news media for freedom of expression

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterProfessional


News media are increasingly using artificial intelligence in their businesses. As lawmakers are discussing the need to regulate AI, the question arises to what extent the use of AI by news media can be regulated and how media freedom should be balanced with other rights and interests associated with the use of AI by news media. This chapter is set up as follows: it describes the general framework for the protection of freedom of expression; it discusses to what extent the use of AI falls under media freedom, which kind of news actors that use AI can benefit from media freedom, and what duties and obligations news media have when they use AI; thereafter, it describes how certain applications of AI in the news media can limit the freedom of expression rights of other participants in public debate, including news users and citizens or politicians who make themselves heard via the media. The purpose is not to offer an exhaustive overview of all the risks of the use of AI by the news media. Rather, the aim is to illustrate the risks of AI for freedom of expression in order to discuss the substance of the human rights of various participants to public debate. Finally, the chapter analyses what kind of obligations states have regarding freedom of expression in the face of the use of AI by news media
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArtificial intelligence in the audiovisual sector
Place of PublicationStrasbourg
PublisherEuropean Audiovisual Observatory
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • artificial intelligence
  • article 10 ECHR
  • freedom of expression
  • news media
  • European Convention on Human Rights


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