(Im)possibilities of studying carsickness in a driving simulator

Jelte E. Bos, Suzanne A.E. Nooij, Jan L. Souman

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


When studying (the effectiveness of countermeasures to) carsickness in a simulator, it currently remains a question whether results still hold true in a real car. This question not only concerns its practical consequences, but the scientific interest in the underlaying mechanisms as well. By reckoning previous observations and new insights focussing on the differences between simulator and car motion as well their Out-the-Window (OtW) visuals, this paper nuances the assumption that (moving base) simulators can be useful in research on driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. It elaborates on six specific issues: 1) the use of fixed base simulators, 2) motion cueing, 3) linear displacement limitations, 4) display limitations, 5) perceptual scaling of visual and vestibular cues, and 6) physical and visually induced self-tilt. The overall conclusion is that only without OtW artificial visuals and when true car motion can be replicated, it is possible to elicit carsickness in a simulator. If motion is limited by displacement, sickness is most severe at 0.35 Hz. Whenever motion cueing and/or artificial OtW visuals are applied, sickness elicited is better described as simulator sickness, then defined as sickness only occurring during the simulated, but not during the real ride.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication20th Driving Simulation & Virtual Reality Conference & Exhibition (DSC 2021 EUROPE VR)
PublisherDriving Simulation Association
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
Event20th Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, DSC 2021 EUROPE - Munich, Germany
Duration: 14 Sept 202117 Sept 2021

Publication series

NameActes (IFSTTAR)
ISSN (Print)2115-418X
NameProceedings of the Driving Simulation Conferences
PublisherDriving Simulation Association


Conference20th Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, DSC 2021 EUROPE

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Driving Simulation Association. All rights reserved.


  • Carsickness
  • Display limitations
  • Moving base limitations
  • Simulator sickness
  • Visual-vestibular conflict


Dive into the research topics of '(Im)possibilities of studying carsickness in a driving simulator'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this