Improving Hate Speech Type and Target Detection with Hateful Metaphor Features

Jens Lemmens, Ilia Markov, Walter Daelemans

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


We study the usefulness of hateful metaphors as features for the identification of the type and target of hate speech in Dutch Facebook comments. For this purpose, all hateful metaphors in the Dutch LiLaH corpus were annotated and interpreted in line with Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Metaphor Analysis. We provide SVM and BERT/RoBERTa results, and investigate the effect of different metaphor information encoding methods on hate speech type and target detection accuracy. The results of the conducted experiments show that hateful metaphor features improve model performance for the both tasks. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the effectiveness of hateful metaphors as an information source for hate speech classification is investigated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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