Improving the EFQM model. An empirical study on model development and theory building using concept mapping.

U. Nabitz, P. Severens, W. van den Brink, P.G.W. Jansen

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademic


The aim of this study is to identify the elements and to design a structure for the Improved EFQM Model. This task was given to the Model Development Steering Group composed of 17 members from different European organizations. First the literature was reviewed and the different award programmes were analysed. In order to process all the information collected the method concept mapping was used. The result of the concept mapping were 13 distinct clusters, which were in large part a replication of the EFQM criteria but with more emphasis on customer, suppliers and partnership and a cluster measurement system and results. The comparison of the clusters with the international award schemes shows great resemblance concerning customer orientation, policy and strategy, leadership, process management and business results. The comparison with the empirical findings points in the same direction. The design team of the steering group proposes a prototype for the model and an Improved EFQM Model. The Improved EFQM Model Draft 1 has 11 criteria, a strong focus on customer orientation and a new measuring system. The Improved EFQM Model is the result of the first phase of the model development process. In the second phase the model will be tested in various ways. It is known that the results of the testing turned out differently from what was expected. The test phase and the final EFQM Excellence Model will be published later.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-81
Number of pages13
JournalTotal Quality Management
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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