Chitosan/dicarboxylic acid (CS/DA) scaffold has been developed as a bone tissue engineering material. This study evaluated a CS/DA scaffold with and without seeded primary human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in its capacity to regenerate bone in calvarial defects of mice. The osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was analyzed by bone nodule formation and gene expression. In vivo bone regeneration was analyzed in mice calvarial defects. Eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups: one group with empty defects, one group with defects with CS/DA scaffold, and a group with defects with CS/DA scaffold and with hPDLCs. After 6 and 12 weeks, new bone formation was assessed using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and histology. CS/DA scaffold significantly promoted in vitro osteoblast-related gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, COL1, ALP, and OPN) by hPDLCs. Micro-CT revealed that CS/DA scaffolds significantly promoted in vivo bone regeneration both after 6 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Histological examination confirmed these findings. New bone formation was observed in defects with CS/DA scaffold; being similar with and without hPDLCs. CS/DA scaffolds can be used as a bone regenerative material with good osteoinductive/osteoconductive properties.