In order to investigate the sensitivity of Potamopyrgus antipodarum to anti-androgenic compounds, three spiked sediment tests were performed. The substances benzanthrone (7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one), traseolide (ATII) and androstenone (5-Androst-16-en-3-one) were previously identified in an effect-directed analysis study of the river Schijn in the north of Belgium. Although, in previous studies, all of the three compounds exhibited anti-androgenic activities in vitro, only the oxy-PAH benzanthrone had significant stimulating effects on the snails reproduction. The reproduction of P. antipodarum was significantly stimulated, following a sigmoidal dose response curve, whereby an EC50 of 10 ng/g dry sediment was calculated. Mortality was significantly increased at the highest concentration (69 ng/g dry sediment). The results indicate different relative potencies for the in vivo test with P. antipodarum and the in vitro anti-AR-CALUX assay, performed in a previous study. This highlights the importance of combined in vitro and in vivo assays for the effect assessment of field sediments. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.