In vivo subdiffuse scanning laser oximetry of the human retina

Mathi Damodaran, Arjen Amelink, Fabio Feroldi, Benjamin Lochocki, Valentina Davidoiu, Johannes F. de Boer

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Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) have the potential to perform high speed, high contrast, functional imaging of the human retina for diagnosis and follow-up of retinal diseases. Commercial SLOs typically use a monochromatic laser source or a superluminescent diode for imaging. Multispectral SLOs using an array of laser sources for spectral imaging have been demonstrated in research settings, with applications mainly aiming at retinal oxygenation measurements. Previous SLO-based oximetry techniques are predominantly based on wavelengths that depend on laser source availability. We describe an SLO system based on a supercontinuum (SC) source and a double-clad fiber using the single-mode core for illumination and the larger inner cladding for quasi-confocal detection to increase throughput and signal-to-noise ratio. A balanced detection scheme was implemented to suppress the relative intensity noise of the SC source. The SLO produced dual wavelength, high-quality images at 10  frames  /  s with a maximum 20 deg imaging field-of-view with any desired combination of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. We demonstrate SLO-based dual-wavelength oximetry in vessels down to 50  μm in diameter. Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing three different imaging sessions of the same volunteer, 8 min apart. Finally, by performing a wavelength sweep between 485 and 608 nm, we determined, for our SLO geometry, an approximately linear relationship between the effective path length of photons through the blood vessels and the vessel diameter.


Original languageEnglish
Article number096009
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


  • hemoglobin
  • hyperspectral imaging
  • oxygen saturation
  • path length
  • retinal oximetry
  • scanning laser ophthalmoscope


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