Identification and monitoring of so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds has received ample attention; both the OECD and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have designed tiered testing approaches, involving in vitro bioassays to prioritize and partly replace traditional animal experiments. Since the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor are frequent targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals, bioassays detecting interaction with these receptors have a high potential to be of use in risk assessment of endocrine active compounds. However, in many bioassays in vivo hepatic metabolism is not accounted for, which hampers extrapolation to the in vivo situation. In the present study, we have developed a metabolic module using rat liver S9 as an add-on to human cell-based reporter gene assays. The method was applied to reporter gene assays for detection of (anti-) estrogens and (anti-) androgens, but can be extended to cell-based reporter gene assays covering a variety of endpoints related to endocrine disruption.
- Endocrine disruption
- Reporter gene assay