Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been recognized as an indoor pollutant. HBCD is added as a flame retardant to many consumer products and leaches from the products into house dust. HBCD might be potentially hazardous to the airways because of inhalation of house dust. Sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) is a risk factor for the development of allergic asthma. In this study, we examined whether HBCD can affect the immune response to HDM allergens. Bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were exposed simultaneously to HBCD and HDM in vitro. HBCD enhanced oxidative stress in HDM-pulsed BMDCs, which was accompanied by a higher production of Interleukin (IL)-6 and -10. Adoptive transfer of HDM/HBCD-exposed BMDCs into naïve mice resulted in enhanced levels of IL-17A after inhalational challenge with HDM. Direct mucosal exposure to HBCD during HDM inhalation enhanced IL-4 or IL-17A production, depending on the HDM extract used, but did not aggravate the eosinophilic airway inflammation or airway hyper-reactivity. Our results indicate that exposure to HBCD can have a mild immune-modulating effect by enhancing the inflammatory cytokine production in response to inhaled HDM in mice.
Canbaz, D., Logiantara, A., Hamers, T., van Ree, R., & van Rijt, L. S. (2016). Indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane has a modest immunomodulatory effect in house dust mite induced allergic asthma in mice. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(1), 405-411. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05348