Scarce evidence suggests that inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicts poor response to antidepressants, which could result in worse depression outcome. This study prospectively examined whether inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation predicted the 2-year course of depressive disorders among antidepressant users. Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, including 315 persons (18-65 years) with a current depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) at baseline according to the DSM-IV criteria and using antidepressants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor-necrosis factor-) and metabolic (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose) factors were measured at baseline. Primary outcome for course of depression was indicated by whether or not a DSM-IV depressive disorder diagnosis was still/again present at 2-year follow-up, indicating chronicity of depression. Elevated IL-6, low HDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia were associated with chronicity of depression in antidepressant users. Persons showing ≥4 inflammatory or metabolic dysregulations had a 1.90 increased odds of depression chronicity (95% CI=1.12-3.23). Among persons who recently (ie, at most 3 months) started antidepressant medication (N=103), having ≥4 dysregulations was associated with a 6.85 increased odds of depression chronicity (95% CI=1.95-24.06). In conclusion, inflammatory and metabolic dysregulations were found to predict a more chronic course of depressive disorders among patients using antidepressants. This could suggest that inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation worsens depression course owing to reduced antidepressant treatment response and that alternative intervention treatments may be needed for depressed persons with inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.