Expansion of agriculture in the tropics has increased the use of pesticides that may affect the soil ecosystems. Few studies so far determined the effects of pesticides in the tropics and tropical risk assessment therefore often relies on data from temperate conditions. Hence we compared the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran and carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia andrei at two different temperatures reflecting temperate and tropical conditions. The toxicity of the three pesticides in both conditions decreased in the order carbendazim > carbofuran > chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos and carbofuran, but not for carbendazim, survival was more sensitive at the higher temperature, probably due to increased earthworm activity. Sub-lethal effects (reproduction and growth) however, varied inconsistently with temperature and soil types. We conclude that toxicity of pesticides in tropics may not be predicted from data generated under temperate conditions, even within the same species. Crown Copyright © 2009.