This paper studies the relative efficiency of, and the interaction between, various information and pricing instruments for the regulation of stochastic road traffic congestion. Five regulatory regimes are considered: no tolling/imperfect information, no tolling/perfect information, non-fluctuating ('flat') tolling/imperfect information, flat tolling/perfect information, and fluctuating ('fine') tolling, implying perfect information. A simulation model is used to investigate the influence of some key parameters on the relative efficiency of the various regulatory regimes.
Verhoef, E. T., Emmerink, R., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (1996). Information provision, flat and fine congestion tolling and the efficiency of road usage. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 26(4), 505-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-0462(96)02130-8