Network-Oriented Modeling has successfully been applied to obtain network models for a wide range of phenomena, including Biological Networks, Mental Networks, and Social Networks. In this chapter, it is discussed how the interpretation of a network as a causal network and taking into account dynamics in the form of temporal-causal networks, brings more depth. Thus main characteristics for a network structure are obtained: Connectivity in terms of the connections and their weights, Aggregation of multiple incoming connections in terms of combination functions, and Timing in terms of speed factors. The basics and the scope of applicability of such a Network-Oriented Modelling approach are discussed and illustrated. This covers, for example, Social Network models for social contagion or information diffusion, and Mental Network models for cognitive and affective processes. From the more fundamental side, it will be discussed how emerging network behavior can be related to network structure.